Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (1876-1958)
Pope Pius XII was a man of exceptional intelligence and learning, which he devoted primarily to affairs within the Church rather than in her external relations. He issued many important encyclicals, such as Mystici Corporis (1943) on the nature of the Church as the mystical body of Christ, Divino Afflante on Catholic biblical studies, and Mediator Dei on the Sacred Liturgy. He proclaimed the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven in 1950. He is commonly called "The Last Traditional Pope."